This passage starts off with an outline on vows. If a man makes one, he must be careful to discharge it properly. If an underage woman makes one, she can have it nullified by her father when he hears of it, otherwise she must fulfill hers too. A married woman can also have a vow annulled by her husband on the day he hears of it. A widow or divorced woman must also deliver on her vow; there is no annulment for them because there is no authority to override her decisions.
In chapter 31 Moses sends out 1,000 men from the 12 tribes to take vengeance on the Midianites for the trickery they used on advice from Balaam. Balaam is also killed in the battle. They destroy the cities and kill the men, but bring back the women, children and plunder. Moses is upset with them because the women were the ones who tricked Israel with harlotry and idol worship to stray from God. A plague had started amongst the Israelites because of bringing the women back, so Moses orders all males and non-virgin women slain. The soldiers and the virgins were to stay outside the camp for a week, and after they and the plunder are cleansed they may come back into the camp. All of the people, livestock, and plunder was to be divided equally between the soldiers and the people in general, with one in fifty going to the Levites. The soldiers found out that no one had died in the encounter, so they gave an offering of the plunder to the Levites as an atonement.
Gad, Reuben, and Manasseh have a lot of livestock and so want to stay on the west side of the Jordan where the pasturing is good. At first Moses is angry, thinking that they mean to do the same thing as Israel did forty years previous to this and refuse to enter the Land. But they reassure him by saying they will fight with the rest of Israel, then come back when all is over. Moses agrees to this and the deal is made. All the land of Gilead is given to these three tribes and they build and inhabit cities.
John 18 we read of Judas’ betrayal of Jesus into the hands of the Jewish leaders using a Roman cohort to do the arresting. They arrest Him after falling back a couple of times when Jesus says, “I AM” and Peter cuts off the ear of one of the servants. Jesus goes before Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin, where they are going to give Jesus a fair trial before His execution. A ‘disciple whom Jesus loves’ (presumably John) and Peter follow Him to the place where He has His trial, and Peter denies Jesus three times. Jesus tells the Sanhedrin that He spoke publicly, and in reply to questioning about His teachings says that they should ask the people who heard Him what He said. Jesus is taken to Pilate, who doesn’t want to deal with this, but is forced to because the crowd alleges Jesus is claiming to be king and they will not rest until Jesus is dead. Pilate asks if Jesus is a king, and Jesus answers that His kingdom is not of this world. Pilate can find no guilt in Jesus and wants to release Him but the crowd demands a murderer be released instead. Reluctantly Pilate goes through an elaborate routine to get Jesus released if he can, but the crowd is insistent and in the end Pilate sends Jesus to be executed on the stake.
The Roman soldiers take Jesus out to Golgotha and crucify Him, with a thief on each side. They nail up a sign at Pilate’s orders reading ‘Jesus of Nazarene, King of the Jews’ and gamble for His garments. The Jewish leaders are upset by the sign because they want it to read that ‘he said,’ but Pilate won’t change it or take it down. As Jesus is dying He commends His mother to the care of John, says that He thirsts so someone offers Him wine, then He gives up His spirit. The Jews don’t want to get unclean for the Feast day so ask that the legs of the criminals be broken (to speed up the dying). The Roman soldiers break the legs of the thieves, but Jesus to their surprise is already dead. One of the soldiers pierces Jesus with a sword, and blood and water flow out. John notes that all these things were done because of prophecy, and quotes the relevant sections. Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus take Jesus’ body and sort of get it ready for burial and lay it in a tomb to wait for after the Sabbath so they can finish the preparation.